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The 5 (Greatest) Military Defeats in All of History

It is common to write lists ranking everything from history’s greatest victories to the best and worst ships or planes. This article attempts to rank history’s best defeats- something that hasn’t been done before because historians and strategists tend to focus on the victors.

And so it should be. No self-respecting combatant could be grateful for losing, right? General George S. Patton himself assures us that ordinary folk “love a winner” and “will not tolerate a loser.” But that’s not strictly true. It may be, that everyman despises generals, admirals, or civilian officials he holds culpable for losing wars. And sometimes losing an individual battle does spell doom in a larger struggle. For instance, few would argue that Carthage benefited from being razed to the ground at Roman hands and seeing the victors salt the ruins. But few engagements have Carthaginian results, rather oftentimes armed forces can pick themselves up, dust themselves off, and learn from war—the harshest of teachers.

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Doubtless everyman would judge the fall of Carthage inexcusable, especially if he had the misfortune to be Carthaginian. But he might tolerate leaders who lose battles, take stock of their mistakes, and go on to eventual triumph. He might even admire and praise them. Why? Because combat is the ultimate field trial, determining what does and doesn’t work in martial enterprises. Prideful leaders might resist the lessons of defeat, whereas humbler commanders learn from setbacks and resolve to do better. The best commanders know how to swallow their pride, learn, and adapt, earning themselves respect.

Furthermore, there’s one other way a loser might be thankful for defeat. Some battlefield defeats could have turned out far, far worse—and the defeated know it. It’s possible to lose a great deal while also realizing you were lucky not to lose it all. Succumbing in an engagement is bad—but not nearly so bad as losing an entire armed force, the campaign it was prosecuting, or the war as a whole. Gratitude is the proper response when Fate grants you a reprieve from complete disaster.

Commanders or their political masters sometimes learn not to roll the iron dice a second time if they knew the odds should have brought catastrophe the first time. After all, it’s possible to salvage something after taking a blow that falls short of cataclysmic. You might even come back stronger for it.

So here is the rank of five defeats from antiquity to modern times, proceeding from good to great:

5 - Pearl Harbor, 1941

The Japanese air raid on Pearl Harbor constituted a tactical reverse with political and strategic upsides. Even the tactical reverse could have turned out far worse for the U.S. Navy in material terms. As Admiral Chester Nimitz noted when he arrived in Honolulu to take charge of the Pacific Fleet, Japanese aviators erred by hitting the fleet rather than the infrastructure that made fleet operations possible. As a result, recovery was swifter for the Pacific Fleet than it otherwise might have been.

Consequently, few American leaders would have wished for a do-over of December 7, however sincerely they rued the loss of the U.S. Navy battle line or grieved for the fallen on board USS Arizona or Oklahoma.

Think about it. The attack simplified things for statesmen back home. As the Hollywood version of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto put it—and as the real-life Yamamoto put it a trifle less eloquently—Pearl Harbor awakened the sleeping American giant and filled him with terrible resolve to smite the Japanese Empire. President Franklin Roosevelt and his lieutenants tapped that resolve, setting in motion a vast industrial and military effort that helped the Allies prevail in World War II. The price of the defeat at Pearl Harbor was a handful of battleships—platforms soon to be eclipsed by naval aviation as the center of naval warfare.

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